10 Questions with a Homebirth Midwife

1) Moms planning a home birth are planning for a low intervention birth. Is the same true for their breastfeeding goals? Do women delivering at home plan to exclusively breastfeed and avoid formula intervention?

Yes. Most women who are planning natural birth also plan to exclusively breastfeed. However, there are situations where a mom chooses not to breastfeed. She may be a victim of sexual abuse or was unable to breastfeed a previous child. We ultimately want women to make the decisions they are most comfortable with after having been provided with as much education and support as possible.

2) What kind of support can a homebirth midwife provide to breastfeeding mothers that is different than a midwife in a hospital or birth center setting?

We offer a lending library that includes breastfeeding books. We offer a one hour prenatal visit so the mother has ample time to discuss her questions, goals, and fears about breastfeeding.

3) What role do you take in prenatal breastfeeding education?

In addition to the support and information provided prenatally, we also suggest the utilization of outside resources like breastfeeding classes, lactation consultants, and La Leche League meetings.

4) What aspects of homebirth uniquely facilitate breastfeeding initiation and establishment?

We are adamant about the necessity of skin to skin contact between mom and baby, with as minimal interruption as humanly possible.  Every aspect of the postpartum experience works better when you just leave them alone. Moms heal faster and babies want to nurse when they are not being poked, prodded, and taken away from mom for reasons that could, in most instances, wait.

5) Describe your breastfeeding-specific training. Does it differ from the training hospital midwives have?

I am not familiar enough to speak on the training of hospital midwives. My experience has grown through living and learning. I nursed all four of my babies at various lengths, based on my education and abilities at the time. I am learning all the time through my clients’ experiences ranging from no intervention to the necessity of an IBCLC or pediatric ENT. I also continue to learn through the support of my peers.

6) Describe the well baby care homebirth midwives give in the first 48 hours. How does this care screen for breastfeeding obstacles?

We usually stay with the mother after birth until baby has latched and is nursing well. If this doesn’t happen for some reason, we are in constant contact until it does. We listen to what moms are describing and make the call for further help based on what they are reporting. We may make another trip back to the house, or, if it seems like an issue that is out of our scope of knowledge, we will refer first to an in-home lactation consultant who is willing to assess mom and baby while maintaining the need for skin to skin contact in their own environment.

7) Do women with gestational diabetes, PCOS, or other endocrine disorders birth at home? What special feeding support do these dyads receive from a midwife?

Yes, and we don’t tend to do anything special unless we are finding it to be an issue. The premise is that it is normal and natural unless it’s not. We aren’t in the business of fixing things that aren’t broken. If we need to refer out for these things, we will.

8) Do Homebirth midwives facilitate informal milk sharing between clients? Why or why not?

Yes. However, not all moms are comfortable with that and we support that, too.

9) What signs or symptoms of feeding challenges do you refer out to an LC?

Baby not gaining weight, latch that just isn’t getting better despite our suggestions of different feeding positions,  mom in extreme pain with cracked, blistered, and bleeding nipples.

10) If a client chooses not to breastfeed, what alternative feeding do you recommend and why?

I usually don’t do much recommending of formula, but I suppose an organic formula of some type if they must. It is extremely rare that a client of ours comes to their six week postpartum visit and is not still exclusively breastfeeding. If they are supplementing with formula, they have already been working with a lactation specialist and have made those decisions together.

Bonus question 11) Share your favorite nursing memory.

I remember a moment nursing my last baby. I nursed all four, but I think I was in a hurry for a lot of that time. Hurry up and quit nursing. Hurry up and walk. Hurry up and potty train. With number four, I knew she was my last and I was thankfully in a place in my life where I didn’t want to hurry anymore. I wanted everything to slow down. I am grateful that I was able to have the awareness to enjoy every single stage with her. I squeezed every last drop. Nursing her one afternoon, she was holding my finger and resting her hand on my chest, while staring into my eyes. I felt in the depths of my being, at that very moment, what an amazing gift to be given the ability to nurse my baby, and I wasn’t going to hurry.

 

Rachel Hart I am a traditional midwife and CPM. I moved to Atlanta from Las Vegas with my husband and four children in 2008. I am a graduate of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas with a Bachelor’s degree in English. I began my midwifery journey through an apprenticeship training program in 2005 and began my own practice in 2007.  All four of my children were born at home, the last birth unassisted. I joined Beth at Birthing Way in 2010.

Helping women realize their true power and potential as a woman and mother through the birthing process has been a privilege. I have really enjoyed attending births with the lovely families here in Georgia. I also support the birth community as Secretary of the Georgia Midwifery Association and as Membership Director of the Georgia Birth Network.

 

www.birthingway.com
rachel@birthingway.com
770-597-4478

Thrush – Yeast – Candida

Thrush is a common diagnosis when mom is experiencing nipple pain. Thrush is an overgrowth of a yeast that lives on the skin and in the gut of healthy humans. Thrush may also be referred to as candida albicans.

How Common is Nipple Thrush?

If you ask a group of moms, they’ll tell you thrush or yeast is very common. If you look at the research, a very different picture emerges. Mothers frequently complain of burning nipple pain, nipple damage, yellow or white discoloration in damaged areas of the nipple, sensations of heat or itching, and pain that radiates into the breast. These symptoms are then lumped together as thrush and treatment is prescribed often without a culture. Frequently, mom’s symptoms improve then return. Frequently, another round of anti-microbial treatment is begun.

The latest research on candida and breast yeast informs us that thrush is often the incorrect diagnosis. More women are shown to have staphylococcus aureus than candida, and not all women with one or both positive cultures have pain. In fact, only 15% of the study group experiencing nipple pain had yeast in the culture from swabbing the nipple. Even fewer, 9% had candida in the milk sample (Amir et al). Does ductal thrush even exist? Could it be something else?

Staph aureus has a white to golden color when present on the breast nipple. The common prescribed treatment for candida is miconazole or clotrimazole. Both of these drugs are effective in treating staph aureus as well as candida.

The largest common denominator in these studies on mothers experiencing nipple pain was nipple damage. Nipple damage is caused by a sub-optimal latch.

How Sub-optimal Latch is Misdiagnosed as Thrush

When a baby latches shallow to the breast and does not draw plenty of the areola into the mouth, the nipple is often exposed to inappropriate friction. The baby then must use the jaw and a clamping motion or bite to hold the nipple in the mouth. This can cause a very common condition called a vasospasm. The pressure from the poor latch causes an interruption of blood flow around the nipple. When blood flow returns to normal, a pain called a vasospam may occur. This pain can feel like shooting or burning pain in or around the nipple or deep into the breast. This pain can happen during, after, or between feeds. The solution for this pain is to fix the latch.

One contributing factor to shallow or clamp-down latch is a high arched palate in the nursing baby. These babies often have milk stains on the tongue because the tongue doesn’t rest against the hard palate and clear itself of milk. The milky tongue may look like thrush. Tongue-tie or ankyloglossia is another risk factor.

Sources:
Amir LH, Garland SM, Dennerstein L, Farish SJ: Candida albicans: is it associated
with nipple pain in lactating women? Gynecol ObstetInvest 41:30-34, 1995
Hale TW, Bateman TL, Finkelman MA, Berens PD. The absence of Candida albicans in milk samples of women with clinical symptoms of ductal candidiasis. Breastfeed Med 2009;4:57-61.
http://www.placerconferences.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/G.Why-Does-it-Hurt.pdf

What to Do if Your Culture Came Back Positive for Yeast

Medications: Your health care provider can prescribe medications for both you and your baby that are compatible with breastfeeding. Many mothers feel anxiety about medications and breastfeeding. Remember, your doctor prescribes medications because they have more benefits than risks. If you are interested in reading study data on breastfeeding and taking your prescriptions, contact the Infant Risk Center.
Pumping Guidelines: If your baby depends on pumped milk, keep feeding the pumped milk. If you engage in informal milk sharing, it is wise to take a break from donating until the yeast is cured. If you donate to a milk bank, contact the bank about the medications you are using to clear the infection. If you have an open system pump, be careful. Change the tubing completely. The tubing can’t be sterilized well and should be changed if there is thrush. If you have a closed system pump that is functioning properly, just sterilize the pump parts correctly after each time you pump.

Nursing Guidelines: It’s perfectly safe and beneficial to nurse through thrush. The direct mouth-to-breast nursing is a closed system and transfers antibodies and biochemicals back and forth. Infant saliva on the nipple actually helps change the make up of the milk to meet a babies unique immune needs. The living cells in the milk help fight the infection during the nursing process. The sucking also can help relieve some of the discomfort babies experience when baby also has thrush.

Nipple Care: Your health care provider will probably provide a nipple ointment that is anti-fungal. There are many on the market that are perfectly safe for your baby’s mouth. You may want to consider saline nipple soaks to ease the discomfort and facilitate healing any damage. Using disposable breast pads can reduce staining in your nursing bras and clothing from the ointment.

Laundry and Dishes: Many moms are worried their bras, cloth breast pads, and cloth diapers are harboring yeast. Contact your cloth diaper manufacturer for instructions on how to strip your diapers. Other fabrics can be soaked in vinegar for 24 hours then laundered normally. Pacifiers and bottle nipples can be sterilized daily.

This blog post is informational only and does not serve to diagnose or treat any condition. See your healthcare provider if you suspect a nipple infection.

 

10 Questions with a Pediatric ENT

1) How can an ENT be part of a breastfed baby’s healthcare team?

Successful and efficient breastfeeding requires the tongue and lips to have adequate mobility (structure) to stably maintain an airtight seal between the tongue, lips, palate and nipple during the process of extracting milk, as well as proper strength, coordination, and movement (function) of these tissues. This is why optimal treatment of breastfeeding problems may require a team effort between the pediatric ENT to address the structural concerns, and a lactation consultant and/or occupational therapist to address the functional concerns.

2) Is tongue tie a fad diagnosis? Why has there been such an increase in tongue tie revision in the last decade?

Tongue ties have always been around, but the increase in emphasis on benefits of breastfeeding, and less willingness to accept the advice just to bottle feed if breastfeeding is difficult, have led to an increased exploration and awareness of tongue tie as a treatable structural concern that may improve the comfort and efficiency of feeding.

3) What is the reason for controversy about tongue tie? Why do so many healthcare providers disagree on this diagnosis?

There is a spectrum of ways in which the tongue can attach to the floor of mouth, and some tongue ties, particularly those that are anterior, are more obvious than others. The presence of a tongue tie that is less obvious is diagnosed by the feeding pattern more than the exam. Those who do not have a good understanding of the ways in which the relationship between the tongue, lip, jaw, palate and nipple can affect breast feeding, may not be willing or able to recognize a functionally significant tongue tie if it is not readily visible. The tongue-tie feeding pattern is a consequence of inability to maintain an airtight seal due to an imperfect relationship between these structures, which leads to a cascade of potential issues including shallow latch, frequent separation/repositioning, nipple pain/cracking/blistering, plugged ducts or mastitis, clicking/air swallowing which makes the baby gassy and fussy after feeds, biting or chomping behaviors (as the baby works as hard as they can to maintain the latch given the structural limitations), leading to fatiguing during feeds before obtaining adequate milk intake, resulting in frequent, inefficient cluster feeds. If these symptoms are present, it should prompt evaluation for an oral tie.

4) Do all tied babies need a frenotomy? Are there evidence-based non-surgical options to resolve this issue?

How likely the frenotomy is to be helpful for breastfeeding problems depends on how much tethering tissue can be released, relative to how restricted the movement is. If the baby has feeding issues suggestive of tongue/lip restriction, then a frenotomy is likely to be helpful. Beyond breastfeeding, the frenotomy is particularly recommended for babies with anterior tongue ties, which are more likely to affect speech articulation.

Non-surgical treatment cannot address the structural restriction of the tongue and lip. Although some babies may gain more strength and coordination, and be able to compensate better, the structural relationships do not change. Toddlers will often fall and lacerate the labial frenulum, but it’s not exactly a workable treatment plan.

5) What is the role of the palate in diagnosing tongue tie?

The tongue must have enough mobility to rise up and pin the nipple against the palate to maintain an airtight seal. If there is a high arch to the palate, then the tongue has to elevate further in order to achieve enough surface contact to achieve this seal. So it is often more the relationship between the tongue and palate, rather than the tongue itself in isolation, that determines whether the baby will have a tongue-tie feeding pattern.

6) Plenty of moms are posting photos on Internet forums asking if their babies have a tie. Can you make a diagnosis from a photo? Is there a difference between form and function when diagnosing ties?

Anterior tongue ties, where there is an obvious tethering band restricting movement of the tongue tip, can be diagnosed from a photo or examination alone, although the history is still helpful in determining how much it is affecting feeding. Less obvious tongue ties are diagnosed much more by the feeding pattern than the exam. There is not always a good correlation between form and function, because there are so many other factors beyond the visible structure of the tongue and lip which may affect the latch. My approach is that the feeding pattern (function) tells you that a tie is present, while the exam (structure) tells you how much of a target you have to improve the situation.

7) What are the long term consequences of untreated oral ties? Is there a way to predict if a tie will be problematic down the road?

Untreated oral ties can contribute to feeding problems with handling certain textures of solid foods, dental hygiene problems including cavities (imagine not being able to use your tongue tip to dislodge crumbs caught between the gum and cheek), and speech difficulties (try to talk while holding your tongue tip against the inner surface of your lower teeth, and you will hear the effects on articulation).

Again, since form and function do not always correlate, it is difficult to predict for sure how much these effects will occur if the tie is untreated. As a rule, the closer the tie is to the tip of the tongue, the more likely it is to affect speech. As the procedure is easier and better tolerated in younger infants, and it is better to prevent the speech problems than to treat later and need speech therapy to re-learn articulation, I am in favor of early treatment once a tie is identified.

8) Why do so many healthcare providers seem to miss this diagnosis? Many moms report being told the latch looks great even though they experience pain. What should they be looking for instead?

Again, this comes back to frequently poor correlation between the exam and the feeding pattern. Many providers are trained only to recognize the structurally obvious anterior ties, or may have even been taught that tongue ties do not affect breast feeding, because some babies with visible tongue ties are able to breast feed without difficulty. (This is like saying that smoking does not cause cancer, because some people smoke their entire lives and never get cancer). Recognition of the tongue tie feeding pattern (see #3) should help determine when a baby could benefit from tongue tie evaluation and/or treatment.

9) Other than oral ties, what other conditions do ENTs treat that may require special breastfeeding support?

Conditions that affect the tongue, jaw and palate, such as cleft lip and palate, Pierre Robin and other craniofacial syndromes, or tongue cysts, may make breast feeding difficult or impossible and require special support.
10) Laser vs scissor: any truth that one is better?

There are no head-to-head studies comparing them, although some providers are laser proponents because there may be less bleeding, which potentially allows the procedure to be done without a local anesthetic (numbing injection), or because it may allow for a more precise cut. On the other hand, laser is possibly more dangerous if the baby moves, certainly requires more setup time and precautions, and is a much more expensive piece of equipment. So I see no convincing evidence to prefer laser over scissors, especially for office-based procedures.
Bonus question 11! Share a memory or reason breastfeeding had a positive health impact for your family.

When my wife and I were in residency and she was on call, I would pick up my son from daycare and bring him to her to breastfeed, then pick up all the bottles she had pumped during the day so that I could feed him overnight. It was nice for them to have that bonding moment in the midst of her busy day, and put him in a better frame of mind to come home with me for the evening.

~~~~

From very early on, Dr. Erik Bauer has been fascinated with language and communication, which led him to an interest in hearing and speech, and from there to the versatile specialty of pediatric otolaryngology. Born and raised in Chicago, Dr. Erik Bauer graduated from Harvard University magna cum laude before enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School. He went on to surgical internship and residency in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, then stayed on for the Pediatric Otolaryngology fellowship at St. Louis Children’s Hospital. This fellowship prepared Dr. Bauer to recognize and treat a full range of pathologies including pediatric hearing loss, cochlear and BAHA implantation , chronic ear disease, congenital and acquired airway problems, foreign bodies, and sinus disease.

Dr. Bauer joined Pediatric Ear, Nose & Throat of Atlanta in September 2006. In practice, Dr. Bauer has developed a special interest in tongue and lip ties, especially as they affect infant breast feeding. He feels fortunate to have learned a lot about this previously under-recognized issue, and to have the opportunity to help many infants and moms navigate this challenging territory.  Allowing babies to feed more comfortably and effectively has turned out to be one of the most rewarding aspects of his practice.

Outside practice, Dr. Bauer does his best, along with his wife Mandy, a breast radiologist, to keep his two active boys entertained, between helping with science fair projects and social studies homework, shuttling to soccer and chess tournaments, and attempting to make sense of their video games. He also enjoys travel, dining, live music, and trying to teach himself languages with varying degrees of success.

Dr. Bauer is a diplomate of the American Board of Otolaryngology, having received his board certification in June 2006, and a fellow of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and American Academy of Pediatrics. He practices at our Main Office, Alpharetta, and Marietta locations.

www.childrensent.com

404-255-2033

 

 

10 Questions with a HypnoBabies instructor

1) What is labor hypnosis?

Hypnosis for birth is a very effective way to prepare for a birth with fewer interventions and greater comfort. Many women report that their births were completely comfortable without any pain medications. Using hypnosis during labor is a great alternative to an epidural. Basically, you will have harnessed to power of your own mind to change how the sensations of labor and birth are perceived. 

2) Why is labor hypnosis a useful tool?

No matter what kind of birth you are planning, hypnosis is going to equip you with tools that will allow you to remain calm and clear headed, even when plans change. This makes it much easier to enjoy the process of giving birth. Hypnosis has been used in the medical field for quite some time, and is a very successful option for those that have severe reactions or life threatening responses to anesthetics. Birth hypnosis by Hypnobabies has been carefully crafted to address the specific needs of this normal bodily function in the modern world.

3) How does labor hypnosis impact initiation of breastfeeding at birth?

 

When hypnosis is used during birth it prohibits the release of adrenaline. This is a tremendous help in allowing the uterine muscles to work without tension and conflict. When the uterus is functioning optimally during birth it can eliminate the fear, tension, pain syndrome. That elimination means that birth can progress more quickly and more efficiently. Many times there is no need for epidural or narcotic use for pain management. When babies are not exposed to these interventions they are more alert and responsive after birth. This allows us to maximize that ‘Golden Hour’ after birth and early initiation of breastfeeding. Also, the newborns are much less likely to experience side effects such as low respiratory response and therefore are less likely to be separated from their Mom right after birth. 

4) What barriers to breastfeeding does labor hypnosis help reduce or eliminate?

 

Babies that are not removed immediately from their Mom are able to benefit from immediate skin to skin. This facilitates bonding, regulation and familiarity. The biggest barrier to this aspect of breastfeeding might be the Cesarean section. Using hypnosis for birth can certainly greatly reduce the risk for a Cesarean, mostly by eliminating or reducing the use of interventions that can lead to more interventions that may ultimately lead to a surgical birth.

5) Do these hypnosis techniques come in handy after birth?

The hypnosis tools learned in Hypnobabies certainly will continue to be beneficial well after birth. One technique in particular is an instant cue for comfort and healing. This can be so useful for immediate postpartum discomforts such as perineal repair, uterine involution, and any nipple pain while finding a resolution to whatever issue is causing 

6) What do you think are the 3 biggest factors in a birth that impact breastfeeding?

Interventions such as routine IV administration and epidural/narcotics for pain relief 
Cesarean births, in particular those that could have been prevented
Separation of mother and infant

7) How can moms find a labor hypnosis friendly care provider? 

 

Ask! I hear so often that a student or client informed their care provider about using Hypnobabies and they were thrilled. Also, many of my students have been told to seek out birth hypnosis if they desire a low intervention birth. 

8) How can moms find a labor hypnosis educator in their area?

Of course you could search online or try www.Hypnobabies.com 
Word of mouth is a great resource, as well. I get a lot of referrals from local mom’s groups.

9) What skills in Hypnobabies apply to long term breastfeeding success?

 

Hypnobabies focuses on informed consent and we encourage families to continue asking those questions throughout their parenting adventures. Finding support and evidence based guidance is key. Hypnobabies provides that guidance and applicable national and local resources for a successful breastfeeding relationship.

10) What skills in Hypnobabies improve partner support of the breastfeeding relationship? 

Having the partner attend the weekly classes allows the couple to create an even deeper bond with each other and their baby in utero. This bonding helps to foster a union that has impressed me more times than I can count. These partners understand the importance of breastfeeding for both mother and baby and are willing to go the extra mile to help facilitate that. 

Bonus Question! 11) Share your favorite nursing moment?

I’m not sure if it’s my favorite, but it is the most memorable… my son and I weaned from breastfeeding much earlier than I anticipated, unfortunately. About a month later, he got pretty sick with a fever and all the other usual crud that can bring a baby down. He was very snuggly (not his typical nature) and somehow he wound up latched on and nursing for comfort. I was nearly in tears and I relished that short time and knew that it was the last. I don’t know many people that know the exact last nursing session.
Nicole DiBella HCHI, CD
Hypnobabies Instructor, Birth and Postpartum Doula

follow me @NaturalBirthATL

Bonus Question! 11) Share your favorite nursing moment?

I’m not sure if it’s my favorite, but it is the most memorable… my son and I weaned from breastfeeding much earlier than I anticipated, unfortunately. About a month later, he got pretty sick with a fever and all the other usual crud that can bring a baby down. He was very snuggly (not his typical nature) and somehow he wound up latched on and nursing for comfort. I was nearly in tears and I relished that short time and knew that it was the last. I don’t know many people that know the exact last nursing session.

10 Questions with a Child Passenger Safety Technician

1) What is a CPST? Doesn’t the fire department check car seats?
 

CPST stands for Child Passenger Safety Technician. We educate parents and caregivers on the proper installation and use of car seats, boosters. and seat belts. SOME fire fighters are CPSTs as are some law enforcement officers, but not all. It is important to check for current certifications before letting anyone check your seats. 

2) Does the hospital check my car seat at discharge? What are they looking for?
Not usually. They need to know that you HAVE a seat, but most nurses are not allowed to touch it. Some hospitals do have a CPST on staff that can help prior to discharge. 

 

3) How do I know my seat is a good one? Is price an indicator? 

Every seat currently on the market is safe if used properly. They all pass extremely stringent testing before being sold to the public. Price is not an indicator of safety. A properly used $40 seat is safer than an improperly used $300 seat. The more expensive seats have more bells and whistles and comfort and ease of use features, but as far as safety is concerned – using ANY current, in date, seat properly is the best way to ensure your child is safe. 

4) Can I sit in the back with my baby and nurse him/her if I keep us both buckled?

As tempting as that sounds, it’s a very dangerous idea. If a crash were to occur while you’re leaning over your baby, your body weight would crush him. It’s much better to stop and nurse or pump a bottle for the road. 
 
5) How do I handle spit up on my car seat? Blow out diapers? Can I put a blanket or pad under my baby?

Always refer to the manual for cleaning instructions. Straps should never be machine washed, submerged or cleaned with anything harsher than a baby wipe or mild soap. This can compromise the strength of the straps by stretching them and/or weakening the fibers and cause them to perform poorly in a crash. Putting a bib on baby OVER the harness after buckling securely can help keep spit up off the seat. A chux pad or puppy potty training pad can be placed in the seat under baby to protect against diaper related messes. These are extremely thin, and as long as they aren’t placed in such a way that interferes with the harness, shouldn’t pose a safety risk. Some manufacturers make specific pads that can be used with their seats. When in doubt, a quick call or email to your seat’s manufacturer can be helpful in figuring out what is best to use.

6) I got a bunch of car seat covers and strap protectors as shower gifts. Can those be used with any seat or are some seats better designed for them?

I always say “if it didn’t come in the box with the seat, then don’t use it in the seat”. These items can claim to be “crash tested” but since there are no federal regulations for such aftermarket products that doesn’t mean anything, Manufacturers test their padding, harness covers, inserts, etc with their seats so they know they pass safely with them. The non-regulated products are not tested in this way. It’s always best to leave the testing to the crash dummies and not take a chance with our own children. 
 
Those products DO often work beautifully in strollers, though!

7) Why does everyone tell me to rear-face my seat so long? I worry that I can’t see my baby. 

EVERYONE would be safer rear-facing. But it’s kind of hard to drive that way. ;-) From age 12-24 months, children are 5Xs (532% to be exact) safer rear facing than forward facing. A young child’s vertebrae are in several pieces and don’t begin to fuse together until after the 2nd birthday and doesn’t finish until between 4 and 6 years of age. Rear facing provides maximum protection of this delicate spine by allowing the seat to cradle the child’s entire body keeping the head, neck, and spine aligned and fully supported and transferring the crash forces over a much larger area. In a forward facing seat, all that force is on the child’s head and neck since the only body parts supported are the hips and shoulders while the head and limbs are thrown violently toward the point of impact. The goal should be to keep a child rear facing to as close to their 4th birthday as possible with the absolute minimum being age 2 to turn forward.
 
8) My baby has reflux. Can I prop my seat or add a positioner?
Every seat has a recline indicator on it somewhere. If allowed (based on age and/or weight) by the car seat, the angle can be decreased as long as baby can support his head. Sometimes convertible seats can help babies with reflux because they tend to be more “L” shaped inside the seat as opposed to their “C” shaped rear-facing only (infant carrier) counterparts. As far as positioners go, as I stated above, if it didn’t come with the seat, then no, they should not be used*.
 
*A few manufacturers DO make accessories for use with THEIR seats that have been tested. Always check your manual.

9) We take long car trips often. Any tips for helping my baby stay relaxed in the car seat? I don’t want to have a car screamer.
Car screamers are the worst. I’m on my second one. Here is a list of some things to try to make traveling more pleasant (and quieter).

– Good air flow. No one likes to be too hot or too cold in the car.
– White noise. Sounds such as beach waves, thunderstorms, and rain forest noises can help calm baby. Even just an out of range, staticky radio station or open windows can be enough.
– Soft, lightweight toys that are special and only for the car. Steer clear of anything hard, heavy, large, or battery operated as these can be dangerous projectiles in a crash. 
– A lightweight, plastic mirror can help rear facers feel closer to mama and daddy in the front seat. These do also pose a projectile risk, so be sure to find one that is soft, fits your car’s head restraints well, and attaches firmly if you choose to use one.
– A backseat buddy can help entertain baby. Having the non-driving parent in the back can make it a little more fun back there!
– A backseat buddy can help entertain baby. Having the non-driving parent in the back can make it a little more fun back there!
– Frequent stops so baby can eat, get a clean diaper, and stretch his legs are very important (for mama and daddy, too!). Usually, every 2-3 hours is the longest you’ll want everyone to remain strapped down. Let them run off that extra energy that they siphon from us. ;-)
– Traveling at night or leaving at nap time can sometimes make things easier, too. A sleeping baby, is a quiet baby. Unless they snore.  
 

10) Can I pump and bottle feed my baby on car trips right in the seat? Can I prop the seat to help him/her not choke?
Keeping in mind the projectile risk the bottle poses, as long as baby remains properly strapped into a properly installed seat, feeding a bottle while driving could be a good last resort. The best idea would be to stop and feed at a rest area, though.

 

Bonus Question 11) Share your favorite breastfeeding memory!

When my girls first glance their eyes up at me while nursing and give me that milky smile is always my favorite. It’s kind of like a little “thank you” for the gift I’m giving them and the hard work it can sometimes be to do it. <3
Rori Holisky is a mother of two little girls, ages 4.5 years and 5.5 months and the wife of a law enforcement officer. She became a Child Passenger Safety Technician in 2013 and started Birth to Booster about a year later. Her hobbies include playing with car seats, watching Firefly and Buffy the Vampire Slayer, and sewing. :-)
 
www.Birth2BoosterSafety.com
https://www.facebook.com/birthtobooster

10 Questions with a Doula

1) What is a doula?
         A doula, also known as a birth companion, is a nonmedical person who is trained to assist women before, during, and/or after childbirth as well as her spouse and/or family, by   providing physical assistance and emotional support.
2) Why hire a doula?
        There have been numerous studies that show the benefits of hiring a doula include a decrease in the chance of C-section, decrease in the amount of time a woman spends in labor, decrease in the use of interventions like forceps and vacuum, decrease in the use of epidurals or need for pain medication, decrease the chance of postpartum depression, and increase the satisfaction a woman feels about her birth experience.
 
3) How does having a doula impact initiation of breastfeeding at birth?
        All doulas should be equipped to assist moms with the initiation of breastfeeding after birth. Often times in a hospital setting, nurses might have to leave to attend to another patient leaving the new mom to figure it out on her own. Some hospitals do not have on-site lactation consultants on call around the clock. Having a doula ensures that a knowledgeable person will be there to help if/when needed. 
4) What barriers to breastfeeding does a doula help reduce or eliminate?
    1. Educational barriers: misinformation about breastfeeding, milk production/supply
        2. Emotional barriers: lack of confidence in ability to breastfeed, embarrassment of feeding in public. A doula provides support if the mom is lacking support from family/friends.
        3. Physical barriers: learning how to prepare for breastfeeding, postioning mom and baby for comfortable and sufficient nursing/bonding time.
        4. Medical barriers: Breastfeeding while recovering from c-section, helping to identify potential medical issues such as tongue ties and lip ties and refer to specialists
5) Does a doula come in handy after birth?
        Yes. Doulas routinely remain in close proximity to moms immediately after the birth of their baby. This is to help facilitate the mother’s wishes for skin-to-skin care, breastfeeding initiation as soon as possible, and to answer any questions about newborn care and postpartum care. Many moms also benefit from the services of postpartum doulas. Postpartum doulas contract with the mother and her family for a specified amount of time (hours/weeks) once the family is settled at home after the birth. Postpartum doulas assist with baby care, sibling care, light household chores, and meal prep to help parents acclimate to having a new baby in the home. It can be a great help to have someone onsite those first days/weeks after birth to help with breastfeeding issues among other things, when needed.
6) What do you think are the 3 biggest factors in a birth that impact breastfeeding?
        1. Medications administered during labor and their effects on the mother and the newborn.
        2. Type of birth. If mom has interventions such as forceps, vacuum, or caesarean and baby has a medical issue due to this and they must be separated for an extended amount of time after birth.
        3. The length of the birth. A mom who has a lengthy labor may be extremely fatigued and unable to breastfeed right away.
7) How can moms find a doula friendly care provider?
        1. Moms can ask their care providers how they feel about having a doula in attendance at the birth. Most providers will have a definite opinion one way or the other.
        2. ICAN of Atlanta has a provider review section on their website. Anyone can join ICAN. You do not have to have experienced a c-section. The forums provide excellent information for all expectant moms.
        3. Word of mouth. Ask your friends,  who have used a doula, who their provider was and what the experience was like. If you have already hired a doula, most can tell you of the more popular doula-friendly practices in the area.
8) How can moms find a doula in their area?
        Resources for finding a doula in your area include www.doulamatch.net, www.gabirthnetwork.com, (or local birth networks) asking your provider if they have a list of doulas that they work with, websites of doula certifying organizations such as DONA, CAPPA, and ProDoula, and again referrals from friends/family/mom’s group members who have used a doula’s services before.
9) What skills does a doula have to help with long term breastfeeding success?
       Many doulas have taken breastfeeding classes to assist their clients in the early stages of breastfeeding. For long term breastfeeding success, doulas assist moms through emotional support and encouragement. Many moms give up just because they do not have the support needed to continue. Doulas provide practical information and solutions to assist with challenges associated with breastfeeding. We are knowledgeable about common problems like engorgement, symptoms of clogged milk ducts, mastitis and can refer you back to your care provider or a lactation consultant for added assistance.
10) Do moms need a doula for birth center or home births?
         I believe all moms could benefit from the support of a doula no matter where they choose to give birth. Birth is a very beautiful, but physically and emotionally draining experience. Having a person who has walked the journey before can make it easier by helping to reduce or eliminate the obstacles of fear, anxiety, lack of information, and more because they are a trusted, trained and experienced individual who is there just for the mom.
Bonus Question! 11) Share your favorite nursing moment?

My favorite nursing moment was probably the first time my daughter latched properly. I was unable to successfully breastfeed my older son due to lack of education and support. I became engorged and had painful, cracked, and bleeding nipples. After 3 days of crying (both of us) I gave up. After I had my daughter, I was able to get help from the buses at the hospital. They explained what a good latch looked like and should feel like. They gave me tips for sore nipples, too. So once at home, when she latched with little help from me and with no pain to me, I was very excited. I went on to breastfeed her for 14 months.

Elysia Douglas is a wife, mother of 4, and a professional, certified birth doula in the Metro Atlanta area. In her first 3 years as a doula, she has assisted over 50 families as they prepared for and welcomed their little ones into the world.  She offers attentive, nurturing, and compassionate support during pregnancy, labor, birth, and beyond. Elysia is passionate about equipping, encouraging, and empowering women to achieve their birth goals by providing unbiased, evidence-based information, emotional, and physical support throughout their pregnancy journey. She fully believes in your right to know your options and make decisions that are best for you and your baby. When Elysia is not at prenatal visits, facilitating a childbirth education class, or attending a birth, she enjoys sewing, painting, volunteering in children’s ministry at her church, and spending time with her family and friends.

www.mother2motherlaborsupport.com
http://doulamatch.net/profile/6020/elysia-douglas
www.facebook.com/mother2motherlss
www.instagram.com/mother2motherdoula

What is a Normal Feeding Routine? How Does it Change with Age?

The one thing that is certain with babies is they change every day. Knowing what the range of normal is for infant feeding can help parents make better decisions about the family rhythm.

Exclusive Breastfeeding and Human Milk Feeding

0-6 weeks: This is the time when babies nurse constantly. Their tiny tummies want a constant and steady fuel supply, just like they were accustomed to in utero. The placenta nourished the baby so well, hunger is something completely new after being born. It’s easiest to feed babies before they show signs of agitation. Nursing in clusters is common. Nursing every 1-3 hours day and night is normal. Nursing sessions may last 5-35 minutes at a time. Babies frequently fall asleep at the breast and nurse in their sleep. Expect 10-15 nursing sessions per 24 hours. Babies should be fed on cue or on demand. No medical organization endorses scheduled feeds for breastfeeding infants.

6-12 weeks: This period is usually full of what most people call growth spurts. Babies this age are still nursing around the clock. Remember, human milk is digested in about 90 minutes. The tummy is still small, maybe as little as 2 or as many as 5 ounces. Some babies will have a “witching hour” in the early evening where they feed in a cluster of sessions. Babies who have been separated from mom during the day may be particularly interested in a marathon evening nursing session. Nursing and bottle feeding human milk should continue on cue or on demand.

3-6 months: The World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that babies continue to receive only human milk at this time. Babies in this age range have a variety of sleep patterns and growth patterns. Teething may begin during this stage which may disrupt feeding or increase night wakings. All of this is normal. The stomach size is 3-5 ounces. Babies in this age range may increase their nursing or cluster feed just as newborns do. On cue feeding should continue at this age.

Breastfeeding with Complimentary Solids

6-9 months: Most babies will have a first tooth appear at this point. Babies who have a tooth, can sit well unsupported, and have lost the tongue thrust reflex are ready to begin solids in compliment to human milk. Human milk is still recommended as a primary source of nutrition. Ideally, the baby is nursed first then solids are offered as “dessert.” You may have heard “food before 1 is just for fun.” Small amounts of complimentary solids are important for iron and other minerals as stores from birth are utilized by this age. Human milk should be offered on cue. Solid foods can be offered at scheduled meal times.

9-12 months: Most babies are interested in self-feeding. They have mastered the pincer grasp and can put bits of food into their own mouths. Human milk is still the bulk of their nutrition. Some babies may not have had a tooth erupt yet. Nursing through the night is very common.

Nursing a Toddler

12- 15 months: The American Academy of Pediatrics feels this is a safe time to replace human milk with other foods including the milks of other mammals. Many mothers continue to nurse their toddlers for nutrition. Toddlers at this age are busy and may have nutritional gaps because they are out exploring the world instead of eating. Their stomachs may only be a few ounces bigger than they were a year ago. Continuing to breastfeed at this age can help a growing toddler meet nutritional needs during a “picky” phase.

15-18 months: Children who are still nursing may continue to do so at night as well. Mothers commonly explore night weaning around this age. Other mothers are glad to nurse through the night to help with the pain and wakings associated with eruption of molars.

18-24 months: By this age, most children are well established on solids interested in eating with the family at more regular times. Self feeding has been mastered. Many children can drink out of a small cup unassisted. Toddlers who are nursing may nurse frequently or only once a day. The range of normal is very wide.

Full Term Nursing

2 years and beyond: The World Health Organization recommends that children breastfeed for a minimum of 2 years with nursing continuing if both mother and child so desire. Children often self-wean some time after the second birthday. Pregnancy or extended separation may motivate a child to wean faster from nursing.

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